Endotoxins and the rule of bentonite in animal nutrition

What is Endotoxin? Endotoxin, also referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can stimulate localised or systemic inflammation via the activation of pattern recognition receptors. Lipopolysaccharide is a glycolipid present in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacterial cell wall. The gastrointestinal tract is large reservoir of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria of …

Biofilms and Water Quality – are they getting importance in modern pig production system?

What is Biofilm? Biofilm is a gelatinous tough layer consisting of cells immobilized in an organic polymer matrix of microbial origin. Biofilms are collections of micro-organisms (i.e. bacteria, yeasts and protozoa) that form on a hard surface with the presence of water. Some examples of biofilms are the plaque that …

Control of Campylobacteriosis in chickens: Why and How

Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of diarrhoeal disease and food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. This is a zoonotic bacterium as the source of infection in humans is from poultry meat. Recent studies indicated that the handling and consumption of poultry meat account for approximately 30% of cases …